Thermal Power Plant: Definition, Layout, Working Diagram, Location in India, PDF

Today We will study the Definition, Component, Layout, Working Diagram, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application, PDF of the Thermal Power Plant. 

Thermal Power Plant:

In the 18th century, the Thermal Power Plant exists with a lot of improvements in the reciprocating steam engine (This reciprocating steam engine is used to develop the steam and with the use of an electric generator makes or produces the electricity).

In the year about 1905, the turbines entirely replaced reciprocating engines in large central power stations and it continues the improvement process.

Role of Thermal Power Plant in the Current Power Generation Scenario:

The development of power in any country depends upon the available resources in that country.

The hydro-power plant totally depends on the natural availability of the site and the hydrological cycle. The new site cannot be created manually for hydro-power plants.

The development of nuclear power required by investment and Technology. Many times, the hydro-power plant suffers if a drought comes even once during a decade and the complete progress of the nation stops.

The calamity of rain drought on the power industry has been experienced in many states in the country.

To overcome this difficulty it is necessary to develop a thermal power plant in the country which is very much suitable for baseload plants.

The coal resources in India about 5.7% of the proven reserve in the world. The geological reserves of coal in India are 193.8 billion tonnes.

The thermal power sector contributes to nearly about 66 percent of installed capacity in India.

The coal production in the country is increasing at the rate of 4.6 percent every year and new plants are set in many parts of the country to increase the power production to meet the demand to increase the per capita income of the country. 

Due to an increase in power generation:

  1. Countries’ income can be increased.
  2. The standard of living can be increased.
  3. Reducing unemployment.
  4. Developing in all sectors.
  5. Development in new technology.
  6. GDP of the country can be increased.

Thermal Power Plant Definition:

A Thermal power plant is an electric producing plant. The fuel used is water which is a renewable source of energy and also the fuel used is coal-fired, liquefied fuel, natural resources, uranium enrichment.

The Essential component used in this system is Pump, Boiler, Turbine, and Condenser.

In brief,

Water flows from a pump to Boiler (Here coal is burning so water gets heated and converts into the steam) this steam strikes to the turbine blade So turbine blades rotate and a turbine is connected to the 3 phase supply generator. The generator generates electricity and there left Steam sends to the condenser to cool and again the cycle starts repeat process.

This works like a closed cycle.

Thermal Power Plant Layout:

Thermal power plant layout
Thermal power plant

The above-shown line diagram is the basic layout of the Thermal power plant electric generation process.

Components or Parts of Thermal Power Plant:

The main parts of Thermal Power Plant:

  1. River or Canal
  2. Circulating Water Pump
  3. Condenser
  4. Heater
  5. Economizer
  6. Boiler
  7. Superheater
  8. Turbine
  9. Generator

1. River or Canal:

As we know Here a huge amount of water is present and it is further used for the generation of electricity.

2. Circulating Water Pump:

It circulates water from the river by the pump.

3. Condenser:

The condenser presents here to cool the working fluid or we can say to remove the heat from the water.

4. Heater (Low or High Pressure):

As the name indicates a low or high-pressure heater means that it increases or decreases the pressure of the water.

5. Economizer:

When water pressure gets increased there some amount of heat generates and that heat sends from the economizer to the boiler.

Above Economizer, there Air preheater is present which work is to heat the air and further that heated air is used in the boiler.

6. Boiler:

Here Coal is burning which means that the heat is producing that heats used to heat the water and the water changes its property and then it sends to superheater, here it becomes steam with high heated.

In the Boiler, there is two section

  1. Coal storage and Coal Handling which works is to store the coal and further used when needed.
  2. Ash Handling and Ash Storage Plant which works is when coal is burned the ash produced that ash goes to Ash storage.

7. Super Heater:

Water heated with high temperature and it becomes superheated here it becomes steam.

8. Turbine:

The main function of the turbine is that when steam strikes to the turbine the blade rotates and it converts the Heat energy into mechanical energy.

9. Generator:

Here the use of a generator, the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy that is electricity.

Thermal Power Plant Working Diagram:

There is two figure shown above in which the first diagram is all about the generation of electricity in details and 

The second diagram shows the basic four-component works in the generation of electricity.

First Diagram:

Thermal power plant layout
Thermal power plant

Water from the river by the use of pump it circulates and that water is pressurized so some amount of temperature is also generated.

And that water is sent to the Economiser.

From economizer, the water comes to the boiler where there is a huge amount of temperature present because (from the air preheater and economizer and coal burning in the boiler ) so there is a huge amount of heat present that heats the water and then the heated water send to the superheater.

Here all the water is converted into steam because of high temperature.

That steam further sends to the turbine.

Turbine blades rotate heat energy is converted into mechanical energy. And that mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy by the use of the generator.

Some amount of steam at the turbine comes to the condenser which is not further used for the generation of electricity.

Here the temperature of the steam is reduced and then further the cycle will be repeated.

Second Diagram:

Thermal power plant DIAGRAM
Thermal Power Plant

The pressurized water available in the pump is sent to the boiler.

In the boiler, there is a huge amount of heat presents (Because From the air preheater, economizer, coal-burning) so the water gets heated.

and the water property has been changed it’s become superheated water(With the use of Superheater).

The superheated water which is steam is further sent to the turbine and that turbine blades rotate their heat energy is converted into mechanical energy and that mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy by the use of a generator.

And there is some amount of steam which is not further used for the generating of electricity that steam sent to the condenser and there it loses the property and again the cycle will be repeated.

Advantages Thermal Power Plant:

  1. The Installation cost is low as compared to other power generation like Hydropower plant.
  2. Even the less space required.
  3. The fuel we use in this Thermal Power Plant is cheaper.

Disadvantages of Thermal Power Plant:

  1. Global warming increases because it pollutes the atmosphere due to the production of a huge amount of smoke.
  2. The thermal power plant’s overall efficiency is low as below thirty (30) percent.

Application of Thermal Power Plant:

  1. The application of the Thermal Power Plant is to produce electricity (The generation of electricity, various stages come cross which has been already you know as discussed above).
  2. Almost 66 percent of electricity has been produced by this Thermal Power Plant In India, Even it will be the more percent.

Location In India Thermal Power Plant:

A good number of the thermal power plant has set up in various cities across India. The power plant produces two-thirds of electricity required for the nation and even at the world level, the generation of electricity is too high as compared to other power stations.

Great articles I come across from google. He has given a great effort to gather all the thermal power stations across India. The thermal plant in India

I covered almost top 10 biggest thermal power plant in India which are:

1. Vindhyanchal, Madhya Pradesh

2. Mundra Power Station, Gujrat

3. Mundra Ultra Mega Power Plant, Gujrat

4. Talcher Super Thermal Power Station, Odisha

5. Sipat Thermal Power, Chattisgarh

6. NTPC Dadri, Uttar Pradesh

7. NTPC Ramagudam, Andhra Pradesh

8. Korba Super Thermal Power Station, Chattisgarh

9. Rihand Thermal Power Station, Uttar Pradesh

10. Jharsugda Thermal power station, Odisha

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Anup Kumar Dey

A Mechanical Engineer with 19 years of working experience in various renowned MNCs.

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