Pump-Definition, Types or Classification, Disadvantages, Application, PDF

Amrit Kumar Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1 Comment

Are you looking for the Pump? So today we will study the Definition, Types or Classification, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application, PDF. Here you will get the articles of Mechanical Engineering in brief with some key points and you will get to know an enormous amount of knowledge from It. So If you find this articles helpful, please let us know in the comment box, either if any correction required too, also let us know in the comment box.

Pump Definition:

A pump is a device which is used for lifting the liquid from ground sources to the upper top surface or from one place to another place.

Pumps are operated by the mechanism that is rotary, reciprocating and it consumes energy while performing mechanical work which is moving fluid from one place to another.

This can be operated by many energy resources which include manual operation, electricity, engine, wind power and many more, day to day life to industrial application.

Pump Types or Classification in Details:

The pump has been classified into two types mainly:

  • 1. Positive Displacement Types and 
  • 2. Dynamic Pump

So now we will study in very details Classification,

1. Positive displacement types:

  • Rotary
    • Single Rotor
      • Vane
      • Piston
      • Screw and more.
    • Multiple rotors
      • Gear
      • Lobe 
      • Screw and more.
  • Reciprocating
    • Diaphragm
      • Fluid operated, Mechanically operated
    • Piston Plunger type pump
      • Power 
        • Single and Double acting
          • Simplex, Duplex, Triplex, and Multiplex
      • Steam Double-acting
        • Simplex, Duplex

2. Dynamic:

  • Centrifugal and 
  • Axial Pump

Two of Pump I have explained in very details like Centrifugal, Reciprocating below:

Centrifugal Pump:

The hydraulic machine which converts the mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy is called Pumps. The hydraulic energy is in the form of pressure energy, If the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by means of a centrifugal force acting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called a centrifugal pump.

Main Parts of Centrifugal Pump:

  • Impeller
  • Casing
  • Suction pipe with a foot valve
  • strainer and
  • Delivery pipe


An impeller is a rotating component of a centrifugal pump which transfers energy from the motor that drives the pump to the fluid being pumped by accelerating the fluid outwards from the center of rotation.


The Casing that receives the fluid being pumped by the impeller, slowing down the fluid’s rate of flow.

A volute is a curved funnel that increases in area as it approaches the discharge port.

Suction pipe with a foot valve and Strainer:

A pipe whose one end is connected to the inlet of the pump and another end dips into the water in a sump is known as a suction pipe.

A foot valve is found at the end of a pipeline in a suction lift application.

They function as a check valve, but they also have a strainer affixed to their open end.

Delivery pipe:

A pipe whose one end is connected to the outlet of the pump and other ends delivers the water at a required height is known as a Delivery pipe.

And the more details of all the figure of the main parts of the centrifugal pump we have shown below.

Working Principle:

The Centrifugal pump acts as a reversed of an inward radial flow reaction turbine. This means that flow in a centrifugal pump is in the radial outward directions.

The centrifugal pump works on the principle of forced vortex flow which means that when a certain mass of liquid is rotated by an external torque, the rise in pressure head of the rotating liquid takes place.

Centrifugal pump


The rise in pressure head at any point of the rotating liquid is proportional to the square of the tangential velocity of the liquid at that point.

Therefore the rise in pressure head is v2/2g.

Thus at the outlet of the impeller, where the radius is more, the rise in pressure head will be more and the liquid will be discharged at the outlet with a high-pressure head.

Due to this high-pressure head, the liquid can be lifted to a high level.

The main application of centrifugal pumps are:

Centrifugal pumps are used in buildings for pumping the general water supply, as a booster and for domestic water supplies.

The design of a centrifugal pump makes them useful for pumping sewage and slurries.

They are also used in fire protection systems and for heating and cooling applications.

Beverage industry: Used to transfer juice, bottled water, etc.

Dairy industry: Used to transfer dairy products such as milk, buttermilk, flavored milk, etc.

Various industries (Manufacturing, Industrial, Chemicals, Pharmaceutical, Food Production, Aerospace, etc.) – for the purposes of cryogenics and refrigerants.

Oil Energy pumping crude oil, slurry, mud; used by refineries, power generation plants.

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The main advantage of a centrifugal pump is:

Their aforementioned simplicity.

They don’t require any valves or moving parts. This makes it easy to produce with many different materials.

It also allows them to move at high speeds with minimal maintenance.

Their output is very steady and consistent. 

Most of all, they are very small compared to other types of pumps that create the same output.

The main disadvantage of a centrifugal pump is:

They use rotation instead of suction to move water and therefore have almost no suction power.

This means that a centrifugal pump must be put underwater, or primed before it will move water.

And also let study about the Priming and why it is necessary.

Priming can be defined as the process in which the suction pipe, casing, delivery pipe up to the delivery valve, which is filled completely with liquid to be raised from an outside source before starting the motor.

The main reason for priming in the pump is to remove the air from the pump.

Other Articles:

Reciprocating Pump Definition:

  • A reciprocating pump is a hydraulic machine which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.
  • This is a positive displacement pump.
  • Here a certain volume of liquid is collected in the enclosed volume and is discharged using pressure to the required application.
  • Reciprocating pumps are more suitable for low volumes of flow at high pressures.
  • The reciprocating pump having two types: 1. Single-acting reciprocating pump and 2. Double acting reciprocating pump.

Main Parts or Component of Reciprocating Pump:

  • Suction Pipe
  • Suction Valve
  • Delivery Pipe
  • Delivery Valve
  • Cylinder
  • Piston and Piston Rod
  • Crank and Connecting Rod
  • Strainer
  • Air Vessel

Suction Pipe:

  • It is used to suck the water from the water reservoir to the cylinder.
  • It connects the inlet of the pump with the water tank.

Suction Valve:

  • The suction valve is a non-return valve which means the only one-directional flow is possible in this type of valve.
  • This is placed between the suction pipe inlet and the cylinder.
  • During suction of liquid, it is opened and during discharge, it is closed.

Delivery Pipe:

  • It is a pipe which is used to deliver the water from the cylinder to the desired location.
  • It connects the outlet of the pump to the tank where the water is to be delivered.

Delivery Valve:

  • Delivery valve also non-return valve placed between the cylinder and delivery pipe outlet.
  • It is in a closed position during suction and in opened position during discharging of liquid.


  • A hollow cylinder made of steel alloy or cast iron.
  • An arrangement of piston and piston rod is inside this cylinder.

Piston and Piston Rod:

  • A piston is a solid type cylinder part which moves backward and forwards inside the hollow cylinder, to perform suction and delivery of liquid.
  • Piston rod helps the piston to its linear motion.

Crank and Connecting Rod:

  • Crank is a solid circular disc which is connected to the power source like motor, engine, etc, for its rotation.
  • Connecting rod connects the crank to the piston, as a result, the rotational motion of crank gets converted into linear motion of the piston.


  • A strainer is provided at the end of the suction pipe to prevent the entrance of solids from a water source into the cylinder.

Air Vessel:

  • Air vessels are connected to both suction and delivery pipes to eliminate the frictional head and to give uniform discharge rate.

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Working Diagram:

The reciprocating pump consists of a piston which moves forward and backward in a close-fitting cylinder. The movement of the piston is obtained by connecting the piston rod to crank by means of a connecting rod. The crank is rotated by means of an electric motor.

Suction and Delivery Pipes with a suction valve and a delivery valve are connected to the cylinder. The suction and delivery valves are non return valves, which allow the water to flow in one direction only.

The suction valve allows water from the suction pipe to the cylinder and where the delivery valve allows water from the cylinder to the delivery pipe only.

Reciprocating Pump

Reciprocating Pump

When crank starts rotating, the piston moves in the cylinder. when a crank is at A, the piston is at the extreme left position in the cylinder. As the crank is rotating from to C,(θ=0º to 180º) the piston is moving towards the right in the cylinder. The movement of the piston towards the right creates a partial vacuum in the cylinder. But on the surface of the liquid in the sump atmospheric pressure is acting, which is more than the pressure inside the cylinder.

Thus the liquid is forced into the suction pipe from the sump. This liquid opens the suction valve and enters into the cylinder.

When a crank is rotating from C to A (θ=180º to 360º), the piston from extreme right position starts moving toward left in the cylinder.

The movement of the piston towards the left increases the pressure of the liquid inside the cylinder more than the atmospheric pressure.

Hence Suction valve closes and the delivery valve opens. The liquid is forced into the delivery pipe and is raised to a Required Height.

Continue reading of Reciprocating Pump…

Pump Advantages:

The main Advantages of Pump is:

  1. As there is no drive seal so there is no leakage in the pump.
  2. There is very loss of frictional losses.
  3. Simplicity.
  4. Almost no noise.
  5. Minimum wear as compared to others.

Pump Disadvantages:

The main Disadvantages of Pump is:

  1. Produce cavitation.
  2. Corrosion.
  3. Can’t be able to work with high speed.

Pump Application:

The main Application of Pump is:

  1. As we already discussed Pumping Water from one place to another place.
  2. Aquarium and pond filtering
  3. This is also used for Water cooling and fuel injection in automobiles
  4. Pumping oil or gas and operating cooling towers in the energy industry.
  5. Uses in waste-water recycling, pulp, and paper, chemical industry, etc. 

Preparing for Competitive Exam? If Yes, then must go for this book:

The most valuable and trusted Mechanical Objective book by R S Khurmi 5000+ Objective.

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About the Author

Amrit Kumar


Amrit is a Co-founder of Learn Mechanical Portal (Previously owned "Engramritkumar.com"). He completed his diploma in Mechanical Engineering from Acharya Polytechnic Bangalore and also completed his B-Tech from Delhi. Amrit is now preparing for Govt. exams. If you need help, you can ask him regarding any suggestions in the mechanical engineering field. He loves to meet new people.

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