Hello readers, in this article we will talk about the pump and its types. And at the end of the article, I will give you a PDF downloadable link.
A pump is a device that is used for lifting the liquid from ground sources to the upper top surface or from one place to another place.
Pumps are operated by the mechanism that is rotary, reciprocating and it consumes energy while performing mechanical work which is moving fluid from one place to another.
This can be operated by many energy resources which include manual operation, electricity, engine, wind power and many more, day to day life to industrial applications.
Types of Pumps:
A pump can broadly be classified into two categories, and those are:
Positive Displacement Pump
Also, there are two types of Positive Displacement Pump, and those are:
Single Rotor Pump (For example, Piston Pump, Vane Pump, Screw Pump)
Multiple Rotor Pump (For example, Gear pump, Lube pump)
Diaphragm Pump (For example, Fluid Operated Pump, Mechanically Operated Pump)
Piston Plunger Type Pump
And again Dynamic Pumps can be classified into two types:
Reciprocating Pump :
A reciprocating pump is a hydraulic machine which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.
Here a certain volume of liquid is collected in the enclosed volume and is discharged using pressure to the required application.
Reciprocating pumps are more suitable for low volumes of flow at high pressures.
The reciprocating pump having two types:
Single-acting reciprocating pump
Double acting reciprocating pump
Parts of Reciprocating Pump:
These are the main parts of a Reciprocating Pump:
Piston and Piston Rod
Crank and Connecting Rod
It is used to suck the water from the water reservoir to the cylinder.
It connects the inlet of the pump with the water tank.
The suction valve is a non-return valve which means the only one-directional flow is possible in this type of valve.
This is placed between the suction pipe inlet and the cylinder.
During suction of liquid, it is opened and during discharge, it is closed.
It is a pipe that is used to deliver the water from the cylinder to the desired location.
It connects the outlet of the pump to the tank where the water is to be delivered.
Delivery valve also non-return valve placed between the cylinder and delivery pipe outlet.
It is in a closed position during suction and opened position during the discharging of liquid.
A hollow cylinder made of steel alloy or cast iron.
An arrangement of piston and piston rod is inside this cylinder.
Piston and Piston Rod:
A piston is a solid type cylinder part which moves backward and forwards inside the hollow cylinder, to perform suction and delivery of liquid.
Piston rod helps the piston to its linear motion.
Crank and Connecting Rod:
Crank is a solid circular disc which is connected to the power source like motor, engine, etc, for its rotation.
Connecting rod connects the crank to the piston, as a result, the rotational motion of the crank gets converted into linear motion of the piston.
A strainer is provided at the end of the suction pipe to prevent the entrance of solids from a water source into the cylinder.
Air vessels are connected to both suction and delivery pipes to eliminate the frictional head and to give a uniform discharge rate.
The hydraulic machine which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy is called Pumps.
The hydraulic energy is in the form of pressure energy if the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by means of a centrifugal force acting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called a Centrifugal Pump.
Main Parts of Centrifugal Pump:
Suction pipe with a foot valve
An impeller is a rotating component of a centrifugal pump which transfers energy from the motor that drives the pump to the fluid being pumped by accelerating the fluid outwards from the center of rotation.
The Casing that receives the fluid being pumped by the impeller, slowing down the fluid's rate of flow.
A volute is a curved funnel that increases in area as it approaches the discharge port.
Suction pipe with a foot valve and Strainer:
A pipe whose one end is connected to the inlet of the pump and another end dips into the water in a sump is known as a suction pipe.
A foot valve is found at the end of a pipeline in a suction lift application.
They function as a check valve, but they also have a strainer affixed to their open end.
A pipe whose one end is connected to the outlet of the pump and other ends delivers the water at a required height is known as a Delivery pipe.
Working of a Reciprocating Pump:
The reciprocating pump consists of a piston that moves forward and backward in a close-fitting cylinder. The movement of the piston is obtained by connecting the piston rod to crank through a connecting rod. The crank is rotated using an electric motor.
Suction and Delivery Pipes with a suction valve and a delivery valve are connected to the cylinder. The suction and delivery valves are non return valves, which allow the water to flow in one direction only.
The suction valve allows water from the suction pipe to the cylinder and where the delivery valve allows water from the cylinder to the delivery pipe only.
When the crank starts rotating, the piston moves in the cylinder. when a crank is at A, the piston is at the extreme left position in the cylinder. As the crank is rotating from A to C,(θ=0º to 180º) the piston is moving towards the right in the cylinder. The movement of the piston towards the right creates a partial vacuum in the cylinder. But on the surface of the liquid in the sump atmospheric pressure is acting, which is more than the pressure inside the cylinder.
Thus the liquid is forced into the suction pipe from the sump. This liquid opens the suction valve and enters into the cylinder.
When a crank is rotating from C to A (θ=180º to 360º), the piston from the extreme right position starts moving toward left in the cylinder.
The movement of the piston towards the left increases the pressure of the liquid inside the cylinder more than the atmospheric pressure.
Hence the Suction valve closes and the delivery valve opens. The liquid is forced into the delivery pipe and is raised to a Required Height.
Working Principle of Centrifugal Pump:
The Centrifugal pump acts as a reversed of an inward radial flow reaction turbine. This means that flow in a centrifugal pump is in the radial outward directions.
The centrifugal pump works on the principle of forced vortex flow which means that when a certain mass of liquid is rotated by an external torque, the rise in pressure head of the rotating liquid takes place.
The rise in pressure head at any point of the rotating liquid is proportional to the square of the tangential velocity of the liquid at that point.
In this article, I'm going discuss about Steam Condenser in briefly. At the end of this article, you will learn How a Steam Condenser works, Definition and Types of a steam condenser, and more. So let's get started. The Functions or Needs of a Steam Condenser: The functions or the needs of the condenser in […]
Today in this article I am going to give you an in-depth overview of Electron Beam Welding Machine. This Welding Process was first developed in 1949 by Karl-Heinz Steigerwald who was a German physicist. In this article first, we will see the Definition, How it's Work after that I'll also show you the Applications, Advantages, […]
In the field of mechanical engineering, the Extrusion Process is widely used by the engineers to form an object which has a fixed cross-sectional area. For making the object, the raw material is pushed into a die to provide it with the desired shape. The major function of this process is that the brittle materials […]
Learn Mechanical is created, written by, and maintained by Saswata Baksi and Amrit Kumar. It is a free resource site for Mechanical Engineering aspirants. Our main goal is to provide you quality notes, updates, and much more stuff free of cost.
The design of this site was heavily, heavily inspired by CSS-Tricks under their supercool license. If you're into design, go and check them out.