ultrasonic machining overview

Ultrasonic Machining: Definition, Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications [With PDF]

Amrit Kumar Manufacturing Technology Leave a Comment

Time to Read: 5 minutes

Ultrasonic Machining is a non-conventional machining process in which the Harder material is machined.

This machines having great properties like:

  1. A high degree of accuracy and Surface finish.
  2. The high rate of metal removal and so on.

Definition of Ultra Sonic Machining:

Ultrasonic machining is Mechanical machining methods. The other mechanical machining method is Abrasive jet Machining. Waves are generated using magnetostrictive effects which are further converted into mechanical vibration.

Magnetostriction” means the change in dimensions occurring in ferromagnetic due to an alternating magnetic field.

No heat is generated in this process and the tool vibrates longitudinally at 20 to 30 kHz with an amplitude between 0.01 to 0.06 mm.

The tool has the same shape as the cavity to be machined.

Parts of Ultrasonic Machining:

The Ultrasonic Machine consists of different parts as follows:

  • Power Supply
  • Electro-mechanical transducer
  • Velocity Transformer
  • Tool
  • Abrasive Slurry
  • Abrasive gun
  • Workpiece

1. Power Supply:

To starts, the machining process power is required. This is essential. As the diagram showing the first is connected to the power supply.

2. Electro-mechanical Transducer:

An electromechanical transducer connected to the AC supply.

The transducer converts an electrical signal to a mechanical signal whereas electromechanical transducer used to generates mechanical vibration.

3. Velocity Transformer:

It holds the tool firmly.

4. Tool:

The tool should be designed as like when the operation is performed does not lead to brittle fracture of it.

Therefore the tool is made of tough, strong and ductile materials like steel, stainless steel or HSS (High stainless steel), Mild Steel, etc.

5. Abrasive slurry:

A water-based slurry of abrasive particle used as an abrasive slurry in this machining. 

Aluminum oxide, Silicon carbide, Boron carbide are used as an abrasive particle in this slurry. 

6. Abrasive Gun:

An abrasive gun is used to supply an abrasive slurry, which is a mixture of abrasive grain and the water in between tool-workpiece interface under a definite pressure.

7. Workpiece:

As the machines perform several techniques like:

  • Machining very precise and intricate shaped articles.
  • Drilling the round holes of any shape.
  • Grinding the brittle materials.
  • Profiling the holes.
  • Engraving
  • Trepaning and coining
  • Threading

Working Principle of ultrasonic Machining:

It consists of an electromechanical transducer connected to the AC supply.
Velocity transformer which holds the tool firmly.

An abrasive gun is used to supply an abrasive slurry, which is a mixture of abrasive grain and the water in between tool-workpiece interface under a definite pressure.

When the AC power is supplied with high frequency, the transducer starts vibrating longitudinally by magnetostriction, which is transmitted to the penetrating tool through a mechanical focusing device called Velocity transformer.

As the tool vibrates it is pressed on the work surface with light force and allowing the abrasive slurry to flow through between tool-workpiece interface.

Buy Our Ad Space

The Impact force arising out of the vibration of the tool end and the flow of abrasive slurry causing thousand of microscopic grains to remove from work material by abrasion.

Abrasive like Aluminium Oxide, Silicon Carbide can be used.

The tool is made of soft ductile material like copper or brass, soft steel or stainless steel.

schematic diagram of ultrasonic machining
By Four30 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=47569493

Applications of ultrasonic Machining:

The applications of Ultrasonic Machining are:

  • Machining very precise and intricate shaped articles.
  • Drilling the round holes of any shape.
  • Grinding the brittle materials.
  • Profiling the holes.
  • Engraving
  • Trepaning and coining
  • Threading
  • Slicing and broaching hard materials.
  • Machining the glasses, ceramics.
  • Machining the precise mineral stones, tungsten.
  • Piercing of dies and for parting off operation.
  • This is precise enough to be used in the creation of micro-electro-mechanical system components such as micro-structured glass wafers
  • Diamond is cut for the desired shapes.

Advantages of ultrasonic Machining:

The advantages of Ultrasonic Machining are:

  • This process is used for drilling both circular and non-circular holes in very hard materials like carbide, ceramics, etc.
  • This process is best suited for brittle materials.
  • The machining operation is simple and requires less time.
  • This process is economical.
  • Glass, Ceramic, tungsten land semi-precious stones can be machined.
  • A semi-skilled operator can operate the machine.
  • Better efficiency can be achieved.
  • Good surface finish.
  • It is suitable for both conducting and non-conducting materials.
  • High accuracy can be achieved.

Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Machining:

Here are some disadvantages of Ultrasonic Machining:

  • Low material cutting rate.
  • High power consumption.
  • Low penetration rate.
  • The process is limited to the machined surface of a small size.
  • Shorter tool life.
  • Ultrasonic vibration machining can only be used on materials with a hardness value of at least 45 HRC (Rockwell Hardness).

So this is the overview of Ultrasonic machining I hope you like this article, to read this type of Manufacturing stuff keeps visiting LearnMechanica.Com.

ATTENTION: Don’t forget to share this stuff on your favorite social media platform, and be a part of #Spread_the_knowledge.

Some FAQ:

What part of the ultrasonic machine generates high-frequency ultrasonic energy?

When the AC power is supplied with high frequency, the transducer starts vibrating longitudinally by magnetostriction

What are the Advantages of Ultrasonic machining?

1. This process is used for drilling both circular and non-circular holes in 2. very hard materials like carbide, ceramics, etc.
3. This process is best suited for brittle materials.
4. The machining operation is simple and requires less time.

What are some Applications of ultrasonic machining?

It is used for:
1. Machining very precise and intricate shaped articles.
2. Drilling the round holes of any shape.
3. Grinding the brittle materials.
4. Profiling the holes.

Here are Some Hand-Picked Articles for you:


References:

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
About the Author

Amrit Kumar

Facebook Twitter

Amrit is a Co-founder of Learn Mechanical Portal (Previously owned "Engramritkumar.com"). He completed his diploma in Mechanical Engineering from Acharya Polytechnic Bangalore and also completed his B-Tech from Delhi. Amrit is now preparing for Govt. exams. If you need help, you can ask him regarding any suggestions in the mechanical engineering field. He loves to meet new people.

Read more from this author

SPREAD THE KNOWLEDGE BY SHARING