abrasive jet machining

Abrasive Jet Machining-Definition, Working Principle, Parts, PDF

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Abrasive Jet Machining:

This is non-conventional machining, Mechanical machining methods.

In this machining, the Abrasive particle size is 10-40 Micros.

Jet velocity will be 150 to 300 m/sec.

Used for superalloys and Hard Materials.

Abrasive Jet Machining Definition:

The Abrasive jet machining is the process of impinging the high-speed stream of abrasive particles by high-pressure gas or air on the work surface through a nozzle and metal removal occurs due to erosion caused by high-speed abrasive particles.

Because of repeated impacts small bits of material gets loosened which is carried away by jet

and exposing the fresh surface to the jet.

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Abrasive Jet Machining Parts or Equipment:

Abrasive Jet Machining consists of these several parts:

  1. Gas Supply
  2. Filter
  3. Pressure Gauge
  4. Regulator
  5. Mixing chamber
  6. Nozzle

Abrasive Jet Machining

1. Gas Supply:

Gas is supply to the system for the operation. Here we also use compressed air instead of other gas.

2. Filter:

Filter indicates the cleanness of the fuel supply.

Here the work is to clean the fuel if there are any dust particles present.

3. Pressure Gauge:

This device will check the required amount of pressure are there or not.

Normally this device work is to check the pressure.

4. Regulator:

The regulator as the name indicates it controlling the flow.

It controls the compressed air flowing through the pipe.

5. Mixing Chamber:

Here we supply the abrasive particles and there already the amount of compressed air comes from the pipe.

Both will get a mix that’s why this is called a Mixing chamber.

6. Nozzle:

This is made up of hard material. The diameter of the nozzle is about 0.18 to 0.8 mm.

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Working Principle / Operation / Diagram of Abrasive Jet Machining:

Abrasive Jet Machining

The figure shown is the above Abrasive jet Machining.

It consists of a mixing chamber, gas filter, pressure gauge, regulator, and the nozzle.

The filtered gas at a pressure of 2 to 8 kgf/cm2 is supplied to the mixing chamber containing the abrasive powder and

vibrating at 50 Hz, where it mixes with abrasive particles and then enters into the connecting hose.

The abrasive and gas mixture comes out from the nozzle at a high velocity ranging from 150 to 300 meter/minute and

Impinges over the work surface causing abrasion action by repeated impacts and the material is removed by the erosion.

Abrasive power feed rate can be controlled by the amplitude of vibration of the mixing chamber. 

A pressure regulator controls the gas flow and pressure.

To control the size and shape of the cut, either workpiece or nozzle is moved by cams, pantographs, or any other suitable mechanism.

The carrier gas should be cheap and non-toxic and easily available, It is generally air or nitrogen.

Abrasive generally used are Aluminium oxide, Silicon carbide or glass powder.

The nozzle is generally made by harder material such as ceramic or tungsten carbide to reduce abrasion wear.

The material removal rate depends on the

the diameter of the nozzle, jet pressure, composition of mixtures, Hardness of abrasive particles and

workpiece, Particle size, the velocity of jet and distance between work and nozzle.

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The most valuable and trusted Mechanical Objective book by R S Khurmi 5000+ Objective.

Abrasive Jet Machining Application:

The main application of Abrasive jet machining is:

  1. Cutting slots and thin section.
  2. Contouring and drilling operation.
  3. Producing shallow crevices and deburring.
  4. Producing intricates hole shapes in a hard and brittle material.
  5. Cleaning and polishing the plastic, nylon and Teflon component.
  6. Frosting of the interior surface of glass tubes.
  7. Etching of marking of glass cylinders.
  8. Machining super-alloys and refractory material.

Abrasive Jet Machining Advantages:

The main Advantages of Abrasive jet machine are:

  1. The surface finish can be obtained smooth.
  2. The cost of equipment is low.
  3. Ability to cut fragile and heat-sensitive material without damage.
  4. Ability to cut intricates hole shapes in a hard and brittle material.
  5. The main advantages are its flexibility, low heat production.

Abrasive Jet Machining Disadvantages:

The main disadvantages of Abrasive jet machine are:

  1. The material removal rate is low.
  2. Poor machining accuracy.
  3. High nozzle wear rate.
  4. The soft material cannot be machined.
  5. Additional cleaning of the work surface is required due to the sticking of abrasive grains in softer material.

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About the Author

Amrit Kumar

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Amrit is a Co-founder of Learn Mechanical Portal. He completed his diploma in Mechanical Engineering from Acharya Polytechnic Bangalore and also completed his B-Tech from Delhi. Amrit is now preparing for Govt. exams. If you need help, you can ask him regarding any suggestions in the mechanical engineering field. He loves to meet new people.

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