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What is Boiler:
- A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated up to high-pressure steam.
- The boilers are used in power plants, for the generation of steam.
- They are mostly used in the power plants where steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity.
There are two types of boiler:
- Fire-tube boiler.
- Water-tube boiler.
- Fire-tube boiler is those boiler in which the fire or hot gas is present inside the tubes and water surrounds these fire tubes.
- Since fire is inside the tubes and hence it is named as fire tube boiler. The heat from the hot gases is conducted through the walls of the tube to the water.
- The examples of the fire tube boiler are the simple vertical boiler, Cochran boiler, Lancashire boiler, Cornish boiler, Locomotive boiler, Scotch marine boiler, and Velcon boiler. And whereas,
- Water-tube boiler is those boiler in which the water is present inside the tubes and fire or hot gases surrounds these fire tubes.
- The examples of water tube boilers are a La-Mont boiler, Benson boiler, Stirling boiler, Babcock and Wilcox boiler, Yarrow boiler and Loeffler boiler.
Lamont Boiler Parts /Construction:
- Centrifugal Pump
- Evaporator Tube
- Water Steam Separator Drum
- Air Preheater
- Economizer use to preheat the water by using the remaining heat of the combustion gases.
- It increases boiler efficiency.
- The feed water first supplied to the economizer before entering the boiler.
- The Lamont boiler is a force convection boiler.
- So a centrifugal pump is used to circulate water inside the boiler.
- This pump is driven by a steam turbine.
- The steam for the turbine is taken by the boiler.
- The evaporator tube or can say water tubes are situated at the furnace wall which increases the heating surface of the boiler.
- This is also at the upside and downside of the furnace and other equipment.
- The main function of these tubes to evaporate water into steam.
- This also cools down the furnace wall.
- The space in the furnace where the fuel is burned is called grate.
- It is the bottom side of the furnace.
- In the Lamont boiler vertical furnace is used.
- The main function of the furnace is to burn the fuel.
- The steam generated by the evaporator tube is saturated steam.
- If it directly used in the steam turbine can cause corrosion.
- So the saturated steam sends to the upper heater, where it can increase the temperature of the steam.
Water Steam Separator Drum:
- The steam separator is situated outside of the boiler.
- The mixture of water and steam from the evaporator tube send to the steam separator, where it separates the steam and send it to the superheater.
- The remaining water again sends to the economizer.
- The main function to preheat air before entering into the furnace.
Lamont Boiler Working:
It works on the principle of forced circulation of water within the boiler with the help of the centrifugal pump.
It’s working totally depends upon the pump. The centrifugal pump circulates the mixture of steam and water through the small diameter tubes of the boiler.
A feed pump forces the water into the economizer where the temperature of water increases.
This water forced into the evaporator tube by using a centrifugal pump driven by the steam turbine. Water passes 10 – 15 times into the evaporator tube.
The mixture of saturated steam and water is formed inside the tube. This mixture sends to the steam separator drum which is outside the boiler.
Steam from the separator sends to the superheater, where the saturated steam converts into superheated steam.
The water again sends to the economizer where it again passes by the evaporator tubes.
The air from the air preheater enters into the furnace where fuel burn.
The flue gases first heat the evaporator tube then passes by the superheater.
These gases form the superheater again use to preheat the air into air preheater before exhausting into the atmosphere.
This working pressure of this boiler is above 170 bar and have the steam generation capacity of about 50000 kg/hour at temperature 773 K.
Lamont Boiler Advantages:
- This boiler can generate a high amount of steam.
- The main advantages easy to start its operation.
- Construction design of Lamont boiler is very simple and easy to understand.
- This boiler can reassemble with the natural circulation boiler and
- it has a high heat transfer rate.
- It is flexible in design.
Lamont Boiler Disadvantages:
- Bubble formation on a surface of the tube reduces the heat transfer rate. For this reason a little problem with the total amount of steam generation.
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