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Jet Condenser: Definition, Types with Working Principle, Applications, Advantages, and Disadvantages [Notes with PDF]

In this article, you will be going to learn about Jet Condenser. So let’s starts with the definition of a Condenser.

What is a Condenser?

A condenser is a device used in industries to convert steam into water. Condenser removes heat from the steam and gives it to the coolants, thus converting the hot steam into liquid know as condensate.

Principle of Working of a Condenser:

A condenser works on the principle of heat transfer (heat energy always flows from higher temperature to lower temperature). It transfers heat from hot steam from the compressor to the coolants and converts it into water.

What is a Jet Condenser?

A jet condenser is a type of condenser in which steam and cooling water are mixed up in a chamber, where the steam is converted into liquid form and know as condensate. This condensate is then used for many other industrial purposes.

Types of Jet Condenser:

There are 3 basic types of jet condensers:

  1. Low-level Jet Condenser
    • Parallel Flow Jet Condenser
    • Counterflow Jet Condenser
  2. Barometric Jet Condenser or High-level Jet Condenser
  3. Ejector Condenser

Parallel Flow Jet Condenser:

As the name suggests in a parallel flow jet condenser the steam and water enters from the top of the condenser and hence flow parallel to each other, this is because the air pump creates a vacuum due to which there is a flow of water and steam. During the flow of water and steam, the heat from the steam gets transferred to the flowing water as we know heat always flows from higher temperature to lower temperature.

The condensate produced is collected at the bottom of the condenser. The perforated trays and air pump is used to make the process faster. There is an extraction pump located at the bottom which is used to transfer the condensate to the hot well. After passing through the hot well condensate is sent to the boiler. The design of a parallel flow jet condenser is quite simple when compared to other types of the jet condenser.

Parallel flow jet condenser
Diagram of Parallel Flow Jet Condenser, Learn Mechanical

Counter Flow or Low-Level Jet Condenser:

As we can see the word “counter” itself says that the flow of steam and water are opposite to each other. In counter-flow jet condenser steam comes into the chamber from below and the cooling water comes from the top. The air pump creates a vacuum which forces cooling water into the condenser.

Water being heavy falls down and steam being light rises up through perforated trays. The falling water gets stored in the perforated trays. As soon as cooling water meets steam on its way, the process of heat transfer takes place as the result of which condensate gets accumulated in the bottom.

This condensate is drawn out with the help of a pump into the hot well. The condensate is drawn out from the hot well. The equipment required for the construction of the counterflow jet condenser is less costly and simple. The quantity of cooling water required is less.

Counter flow condenser
Diagram of Counter Flow Jet Condenser, Learn Mechanical

Barometric or High-Level Jet Condenser:

Barometric or high level jet condenser works much similar to counter flow jet condensers. There are a few changes in the basic structure, there is a long discharge pipe from where the condensate passes and accumulates in the hot well.

The air pump and injection pump forces cooling water from the top of the condenser and the steam is forced from below, again steam being light rises up and water being heavy falls down through perforated trays. Heat transfer between water and steam takes place producing condensate which gets settled down.

Unlike other condensers, there’s no need for a pump to extract the condensate. The potential energy of condensate is high enough to make it fall this is because of the long discharge pipe.

Barometric Jet Condenser
Diagram of Barometric Jet Condenser, Learn Mechanical

Ejector Condenser:

In the Ejector type jet condenser the steam and cooling water mixes together and pass through few metal cones. These metal cones increase the time taken by the water to come down, thus increasing the time of heat transfer.

The steam enters into the condenser through a non-return valve (the steam can only go in and can’t come out of the valve).

Steam and cooling water get mixed together properly while passing through the cone where the heat transfer process takes place. There are no pumps used as the area of cross-section does not get narrow. The condensate gets collected into a hot well. 

Ejector Condenser
Diagram of Ejector Condenser, Learn Mechanical

Applications of Jet Condenser:

These are some of the Applications of Jet Condenser:

  • A jet condenser is a direct type of condenser hence used for condensing vapors in evaporators.
  •  It is also used for condensing vapors in a vapor pans.
  • Jet condensers are used in some of the thermal power plants to condense steam or hot air.

Advantages of Jet Condenser:

A Jet Condenser has following Advantages:

  • As we can see that the construction of jet condenser is easy to understand and hence do not need many skilful labels.
  • Because of the simple design installation cost of the jet condenser is low.
  • Less amount of water or coolant is required in jet condensers.
  • Jet condensers are quite small in size therefore they acquire less area.
  • The maintenance cost of jet condensers is quite low.
  • Unlike other condensers, the cooling water and steam mix together physically in jet condensers.

Disadvantages of Jet Condensers:

Disadvantages of Jet Condensers are:

  • Condensate waste cannot be reused in jet condensers.
  • Air pump used in jet condensers requires high power.
  • Vacuum efficiency is quite low therefore there’s a requirement of the pump to circulate water.
  • The water pumps used also require high power to operate.
  • The efficiency of jet condensers is low. This is because of the compact size of jet condensers.
  • The capacity of jet condensers is also low that’s why jet condensers are not used for heavy industrial purposes.
  • The cooling water should be free from impurities which is not the case with jet condensers.
  •  In a situation, if the extraction pump fails in the case of low-level jet condensers the condenser may get flooded.

Conclusion:

So there you have it: A In-depth Overview of Jet Condenser. Let me know in the comment section if you have any doubt about it. Also, we have more articles related to Condenser feel free to check those out.

More Resources:


Media Credits:


  • All the images are made by Saubhik Roy-Design Team LM.
  • Feature Image is modified by the author.

References:


  • Parvez, Mohd. (2018). Steam Condenser. Access from: Research Gate.
  • Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Condenser”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 8 Jan. 2016, https://www.britannica.com/technology/condenser-cooling-device. Accessed 10 April 2021.
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Aayush Rao

Aayush is a Mechanical Engineering aspirant completing his degree from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology, Mumbai. He has a keen interest in Manufacturing Technology, Thermal Engineering, and Workshop technology. He is now working as an Intern writer at Learn Mechanical.

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