Today in this article, we will discuss about the elements of a steam condensing plant and will observe what is the purpose of the individual parts in a steam condensing plat. So let’s start with the definition of Steam Condenser.
What is a Steam Condenser?
A steam condenser is a closed vessel where the heat exchange takes place, here gaseous substance condenses into a liquid substance and released the latent heat to the atmosphere or cooling water which is circulated through the condenser.
Elements or Components of Condensing Plant:
A Condensing Plain consists of eight major elements, those are listed below:
- Air Extraction Pump
- Condensate Extraction Pump
- Cooling Water Circulating Pump
- Hot Well
- Cooling Tower
- Boiler Feed Pump
- Makeup Water Pump
Let me explain these briefly.
The condenser is nothing but a heat exchanger which is used to condensate the exhaust steam comes from the turbine.
Within this vessel, steam loses heat as soon as it is in touch with the cooling water (either directly or via small tubes).
Generally inside of a condenser is maintained at negative pressure or vacuum pressure, as the steam comes from the turbine, has low pressure so to the easier flow of steam into the condenser we need to maintain the condenser vessel at lower pressure.
Air Extraction Pump:
The main funtion of the air-extraction fan is to maintain the vacuum pressure inside of the condenser. This pump is also called a dry pump.
The main objective of this pump is:
- It helps to extract the air as well as any non-condensable gaseous substance, and maintain the vacuum.
- It also prevents the air from blanketing over the condenser tubes otherwise heat transfer rate is decreased.
- It also helps to reduce the quantity of oxygen in condensate to avoid corrosion.
In general, a centrifugal pump is used for this operation.
Condensate Extraction Pump:
Condensate extraction pump is used to remove the condensed steam i.e. water from the condenser, and supplies to the hot well.
Condensate Extraction Pump is a low-pressure pump.
Cooling Water Circulating Pump:
Cooling water circulating pump helps to circulate the cooling water from cooling tower to condenser. Thus by using this pump the efficiency of the plant is increases.
It is a tank which stores the condensate which comes from the condenser, and from here it is supplied to the boiler using a feedwater pump.
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device or a heat exchanger in which water get contact with atmospheric air to reduce its (water) temperature. In this event, some portion of the water is vaporized and reduce the temperature of the water.
Boiler Feed Pump:
It is a pump which is used to supply the water from hot well to the boiler.
Makeup Water Pump:
When the condensing plant comes into operation, then it might face the deficiency of cooling water after some cycle as some portion of the water is vaporized, or carried out in the form of a droplet. To maintain the quantity of the cooling water in the process, makeup water needs to be added by the help of the makeup water pump, which delivers fresh water from a sump to the condensing plant.
According to Advantages Engineering, the maximum normal water makeup for a cooling tower system is .06 Gallons Per Minute / TON or about 2% of the nominal tower flow rate.
In a concluding note, now at least you got an idea of steam condensing plant and the elements associated with it, also you read the purposes of those elements in details. I hope you found this article helpful.
We also have lots of knowledgeable articles like this on the various Mechanical engineering subjects, feel free to check those too.
- All the images of this article are made by Saubhik Roy- Design team LM.
- Feature Image is modified by the author.