Geothermal Energy-Definition, Working Diagram / Layout, Examples, PDF

Geothermal Energy Definition:

Geothermal Energy = Earth Heat

This is a clean renewable source of energy which provides energy in households the world.

The geothermal energy is the energy source which is generated with the help of earth heat and several components like a Separator, turbine, Generator, Condenser, Cooling tower, and more such components are used.

Earth interior

The above diagram earth’s interior describes the earth having several layers like:

Iron core: A huge amount of temperature presence

Outer core (magma): Due to a huge amount of temperature presence on the iron core that heat comes to contact with the outer core and gets much heated

Magma and rock: Here rocks are presence and the outer core heat, heats the rock with a high temperature and

Water: The water contacts with the magma and rock (Due to high temperature) the generation of steam occurs.

Living land: The land on which tree is set up and the living things are present like (Human, Animal, Insects, Trees and many more).

Geothermal Energy Working Diagram / Layout  / Examples:

The main parts of Geothermal Energy are:

  1. Separator
  2. Turbine
  3. Generator
  4. Power Lines
  5. Condenser
  6. Cooling Tower
earth crust temperature

Try to observe the above diagram: How water comes and contact with the super-hot mantle.

Now It’s Working:

At the earth center, there is almost 5000° C temperature. This temperature heats the magma and then the stones which are present there it gets heated. So the stone has a huge temperature when in contact with the water it reacts or produces vapor (formation of steam because of high temperature) which is further used for generation of electricity.

Here we have set up several types of equipment for several purposes. As you can see the layout.

Then the steam (less percent of liquid presents) comes into the separator where the presence of water leaves and the steam send to the turbine.

Now the turbine rotates and generator is attached to the Turbine so Electricity generates or produces.

In the turbine section, some amount of unused steam or we can say steam not used for the production of electricity comes to the condenser through the pipe and there it loses high temp and pressure and then it comes to the ground.

The layout which describes the several processes occurs with several types of equipment like:

1. Separator:

Here the separator works like separating the steam and water.

2. Turbine:

The turbine is used for power generation. Steam from the separator sends to the turbine for rotating vane and generation of electricity.

3. Generator:

This is attached to the turbine and the main work of the generator is to generate steam from the help of the turbine.

4. Power lines:

Power lines are attached to the Power House room and it supplies electricity to the various places.

5. Condenser:

Some amount of stem which is not used in the turbine that comes to the condenser through the pipe and where it loses the temperature and pressure and then it goes to ground.

6. Cooling tower:

This is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. 

Advantages of Geothermal Energy:

The main advantages of Geothermal Energy are:

  1. The steam (which is used for running the turbine to generate the electricity) is naturally available there is no require additional steam to generate.
  2. No fuel required to generate the Steam because it generates naturally.
  3. This energy is reliable and Cheapest sources of energy.
  4. It is available 24 hours per day.
  5. Its availability is independence of weather.
  6. Its storage is inherent so there is no need of the extra storage device is required.
  7. Geothermal plants require little land area as compared to other power plants like a hydel power plant.
  8. Feasibility of modular approach represents a lot of opportunities for the development of relatively quick, cost-effective geothermal projects.
  9. The potential capacity of about 0.035 to 2 TW (TeraWatt) worldwide.
  10. Renewable sources of energy.

Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy:

The main disadvantages of Geothermal Energy are:

  1. Environmental Friendly sources of energy.
  2. This is site-specific that means at every place you can not build the geothermal power station.
  3. Generally, the energy is available at low-grade heat.
  4. Continuous extraction of heated groundwater may lead to subsidence (Setting or slumping) of land.
  5. Geothermal fluid also brings with dissolved gases and solute as high as 25 kg/m3 which leads to air and land pollution.
  6. Drilling operation leads to noise pollution.
  7. The available thermal energy cannot be distributed easily over a long distance longer than 30KM.
  8. Corrosion and abrasive geothermal fluid reduce the life of geothermal plants.

Application of Geothermal Energy:

The main application of Geothermal Energy are:

  1. Power generation
  2. Cooking
  3. Space heating
  4. Use in greenhouse cultivation
  5. Crop Drying

The major or direct use of geothermal energy is divided into 3 category which is

1. Power Generation:

2. Heat Pump:

3. Direct uses:

Geothermal Energy In India:

The below I have shown an India map which describes the Geothermal energy location at various places.

Following are the six most promising geothermal energy sites in India:

Tattapani in Chhattisgarh

Puga in Jammu & Kashmir

Cambay Graben in Gujarat

Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh

Surajkund in Jharkhand

Chhumathang in Jammu & Kashmir

And the six major geothermal provinces in India which are

  1. Himalayan Province e.g. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, etc.
  2. Areas of Faulted blocks e.g. Aravalli belt, Naga-Lushi, West coast regions, and Son-Narmada lineament.
  3. Volcanic Arc e.g. Andaman and Nicobar Arc (Barren Island).
  4. The deep sedimentary basin of Tertiary age e.g. Cambay basin in Gujarat.
  5. Radioactive Province e.g. Surajkund, Hazaribagh, and Jharkhand.
  6. Cratonic Province e.g. Peninsular India.
Geothermal Energy Map

Indian organizations working in geothermal energy:

  1. Central Electricity Authority
  2. Geological Survey of India
  3. Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai
  4. Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu
  5. National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad
  6. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, Dehradun
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Anup Kumar Dey

A Mechanical Engineer with 19 years of working experience in various renowned MNCs.

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