What is Engine? and What are Types of Engine?

Amrit Kumar Automobile Engineering 3 Comments

The article includes Engine and Types of Engine in details. Here you will get the articles of Mechanical Engineering in brief with some key points and you will get to know an enormous amount of knowledge from It. So If you find this articles helpful, please let us know in the comment box, either if any correction required too, also let us know in the comment box.

When we hear the word “Engine” that means delivering directly or indirectly Power, to run the system.

The term Engine can be understood by taking a simple example,

Considering, you going to market for buying a Motorcycle. First thing what you will see

  1. Which Brand would be good
  2. the Price
  3. Which types of Engine and the engine Mileage
  4.  Reliability, Durability
  5. Service center nearer and more stuffs

Moving to Engines, Burning of Fuel how much Power delivers (Power can be used for moving the vehicles forward, lighting the bulb and more).

What is the Engine?

The engine can be defined as the energy from one form converts to another form for useful works. The heat engine (Internal Combustion ) burns fuel to create heat energy for useful work.

It can be 2 strokes, 4 Stroke, Petrol, Diesel, 2 cylinders, 3 cylinders and more.

Types of Engine:

The different types of engine basically consist of two types which are Internal Combustion and External Combustion Engine.

Internal Combustion Engine: Fuel combustion takes place inside the engine system.

Example: Motorcycle, Car, Bus (fuel burns inside the engine system)

External Combustion Engine: Fuel combustion takes place outside the engine system.

Example: Steam Engine, Power Plant (In Turbine blade rotating and with the help of induction motor produces electricity)

Further, the Engines has been classified into 10 different categories:

  1. Number of Cylinder Engine
  2. Arrangement of Cylinder Engine
  3. Valve arrangement 
  4. Number of strokes per cycle
  5. Methods of Ignition
  6. Firing order
  7. Types of fuel burn
  8. Type of Cooling
  9. Reciprocating or Rotary Engine and
  10. Thermodynamic Cycle Engine

1. Number of Cylinder:

  • Single Cylinder
  • Double Cylinder and 
  • Multi-Cylinder Engine

Single Cylinder:

The single-cylinder means only one cylinder used in the engine.

Examples: Motorcycle, Scooter

Double Cylinder:

The double-cylinder means two-cylinder used.

Multi-Cylinder Engine:

The multi-cylinder means more than 2 cylinders used.

Here it might be 3 cylinders, 4 cylinders and more.

2. Arrangement of Cylinder:

  • V type
  • W type
  • Inline or Vertical
  • Horizontal
  • Radial
  • Opposed Engine

V and W type:

Here cylinder is placed at some angle between each other. Why angle? because it prevents the problem of vibration and balancing.

Inline or Vertical:

The cylinder arranged or placed in a vertical position.

Horizontal:

The cylinder arranged or arranged in a horizontal position.

Radial:

This is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine.

Cylinders radiate outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel.

Opposed Engine:

The cylinder arranged horizontally opposite to each other. This type of cylinder arrangement can be run smoothly at much higher speeds and gives higher outputs.

3. Valve arrangement:

  • L-head
  • T-head
  • I-head
  • F-head

L-head:

The inlet, exhaust valves are arranged side by side and operated by a single camshaft.

Cylinder and combustion chamber forms an inverted “L”.

I-head:

In I-head the inlet and exhaust valves are located in the cylinder head.  

A single valve actuates all the valves. this types of engine are used in automobiles.

F-head

It is a combination of L-head and I-head engines.

One valve usually inlet valve which is in the head and the exhaust valve which is in the cylinder block.

T-head:

It has inlet valves on one side and exhaust valves on another side of the cylinder.

Therefore, two camshafts are required to operate them. 

4. The number of strokes per cycle:

  • 4 Stroke and
  • 2 Stroke

In 4 stroke the cycle of engine complete 4 strokes of piston whereas

In 2 stroke the cycle of engine completes 2 strokes of the piston.

5. Methods of Ignition:

  • Spark Ignition (SI) and
  • Compression-Ignition (CI) Engine

Spark Ignition (A homogenous mixture of air and fuel vapor is supplied to the engine and the combustion is initiated by spark plug)

Compression-Ignition (Air sucked inside the cylinder is compressed to a higher pressure and temperature, This temperature exceeds the self-ignition temperature of the fuel.)

The engine cycle of both SI and CI engine can be completed in 2 strokes or 4 strokes of the piston.

6. Firing order:

Firing order changes from cylinder to cylinder.

Single Cylinder 1
Double Cylinder 1-2
Three-Cylinder 1-2-3, 1-3-2

Study Firing Order in details.

7. Types of fuel burn:

  • Petrol (The engine works on Petrol fuel such as Motorcycle )
  • Oil or Diesel (engine works on Diesel)
  • Gas (CNG, LPG, PRODUCER GAS)
  • Multi-Fuel Engine (Use gasoline or diesel oil for starting the engine and kerosene as there primary fuel)

8. Type of Cooling:

  • Water Cooling (Engine cooled by circulating water)
  • Air Cooling (Engine cooled by blowing atmospheric air over the hot surface)

9. Reciprocating or Rotary:

  • Reciprocating and
  • Rotary Engine

10. Thermodynamic Cycles:

  • OTTO or Constant Volume Cycle (In this the energy released during the combustion of a fuel occurs at constant volume.)
  • DIESEL or Constant Pressure Cycle (In this the energy released during the combustion of a fuel occurs at constant pressure.)
  • DUAL or Limited Pressure Cycle (In this the energy released by combustion of a fuel partly at constant volume and pressure.)

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About the Author

Amrit Kumar

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Amrit is a Co-founder of Learn Mechanical Portal (Previously owned "Engramritkumar.com"). He completed his diploma in Mechanical Engineering from Acharya Polytechnic Bangalore and also completed his B-Tech from Delhi. Amrit is now preparing for Govt. exams. If you need help, you can ask him regarding any suggestions in the mechanical engineering field. He loves to meet new people.

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