Last Updated on March 4, 2023 by Ali Abbas Khan
In this article, we shall be exploring the different types of engines. When we hear the word “Engine” that means delivering directly or indirectly Power, to run the system. The term Engine can be understood by taking a simple example, Considering, you going to market for buying a Motorcycle/Car. First thing you will see
- Which Brand would be good
- The Price of the Automobile
- Types of Engine offered and Fuel Mileage
- Reliability, Durability
- Service center and Brand Image.
Moving to Engines, Burning of Fuel how much Power it delivers (Power can be used for moving the vehicles forward, headlights, and more).
Table of Contents
Types of Engine
- Internal Combustion Engine
- External Combustion Engine.
We can broadly classify engines into two categories those are Internal Combustion Engine and External Combustion Engine.
Internal Combustion Engine: Fuel combustion takes place inside the engine system. For example Motorcycle, Car, Bus (fuel burns inside the engine system)
External Combustion Engine: Fuel combustion takes place outside the engine system. For example Steam Engine, Power Plant (In Turbine blade rotating and with the help of induction motor produces electricity)
Further, the Engines has been classified into 10 different categories:
- Number of Cylinder Engine
- Arrangement of Cylinder Engine
- Valve arrangement
- Number of strokes per cycle
- Methods of Ignition
- Firing order
- Types of fuel burn
- Type of Cooling
- Reciprocating or Rotary Engine
- Thermodynamic Cycle Engine
Number of Cylinder
- Single Cylinder Engine
- Double Cylinder Engine
- Multi-Cylinder Engine
Single Cylinder Engine
The single-cylinder means only one cylinder used in the engine. for examples: Motorcycle, Scooter
Double Cylinder Engine
The double-cylinder means two-cylinder used.
The multi-cylinder means more than 2 cylinders used. Here it might be 3 cylinders, 4 cylinders and more.
Arrangement of Cylinder
- V type Engine
- W type Engine
- Inline or Vertical Engine
- Horizontal Engine
- Radial Engine
- Opposed Engine
V and W type
Here cylinder is placed at some angle between each other because it prevents the problem of vibration and balancing.
Inline or Vertical
The cylinder is arranged or placed in a vertical position.
The cylinder is placed or arranged in a horizontal position.
This is a reciprocating type of internal combustion engine. Cylinders radiate outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel.
The cylinder arranged horizontally opposite to each other. This type of cylinder arrangement can be run smoothly at much higher speeds and gives higher outputs.
The inlet, exhaust valves are arranged side by side and operated by a single camshaft. The cylinder and combustion chamber forms an inverted “L”.
In I-head the inlet and exhaust valves are located in the cylinder head. A single valve actuates all the valves. These types of engines are used in automobiles.
It is a combination of L-head and I-head engines. One valve is usually an inlet valve which is in the head and the exhaust valve which is in the cylinder block.
It has inlet valves on one side and exhaust valves on another side of the cylinder. Therefore, two camshafts are required to operate them.
The number of strokes per cycle
In 2 stroke cycle the engine completes 2 strokes of the piston.
In 4 strokes cycle the engine completes 4 strokes of the piston
Methods of Ignition
Spark Ignition (SI)
Spark Ignition (A homogenous mixture of air and fuel vapor is supplied to the engine and the combustion is initiated by spark plug)
Compression-Ignition (CI) Engine
Compression-Ignition (Air sucked inside the cylinder is compressed to a higher pressure and temperature, This temperature exceeds the self-ignition temperature of the fuel.)
The engine cycle of both SI and CI engines can be completed in 2 strokes or 4 strokes of the piston.
Firing order changes from cylinder to cylinder.
- Single Cylinder 1
- Double Cylinder 1-2
- Three-Cylinder 1-2-3, 1-3-2
Types of fuel burn
- Petrol (The engine works on Petrol fuel such as Motorcycle )
- Oil or Diesel (engine works on Diesel)
- Gas (CNG, LPG, PRODUCER GAS)
- Multi-Fuel Engine (Use gasoline or diesel oil for starting the engine and kerosene as there primary fuel)
Type of Cooling
- Water Cooling (Engine cooled by circulating water)
- Air Cooling (Engine cooled by blowing atmospheric air over the hot surface)
Reciprocating or Rotary
- Reciprocating and
- Rotary Engine
OTTO or Constant Volume Cycle
In this the energy released during the combustion of a fuel occurs at constant volume.
DIESEL or Constant Pressure Cycle
In this the energy released during the combustion of a fuel occurs at constant pressure.
DUAL or Limited Pressure Cycle
In this the energy released by combustion of a fuel partly at constant volume and pressure.
here’s how a car engine works
In conclusion, there are two engine categories namely internal and external combustion. Internal combustion engines are commonly used and have various classifications based on factors such as cylinder number, ignition method, and cooling type. Compression-Ignition engines are a specific type of internal combustion engine that compresses air to ignite fuel. Knowing engine types and classifications is essential for decision-making about vehicle and machinery use.