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Laser Beam Machining:
Laser beam machining is a non-conventional machining method in which the operation performed by the laser. The laser stand for Light stimulated emission of radiation. The process used thermal energy to remove material from a metallic surface.
Laser Beam Machining Working Principle:
The working principle of laser beam machining is,
In LBM, Laser means:
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
In this process, the Laser Beam is called as monochromatic light, which is made to focus on the workpiece to be machined by a lens to give extremely high energy density to melt and vaporize any material.
The Laser Crystal (Ruby) is in the form of a cylinder as shown in above figure or Diagram with flat reflecting ends which are placed in a flash lamp coil of about 1000W.
The Flash is simulated with the high-intensity white light from Xenon.
The Crystal get excited and emits the laser beam which is focused on the workpiece a by using the lens.
The beam produced is extremely narrow and can be focused to a pinpoint area with a power density of 1000 kW/cm2. Which produces high heat and the portion of the metal is melted and vapourises.
Laser Beam Machining Application, Advantage, Disadvantage:
- This process is used for making very small holes.
- Complicated welding of non-conductive and refractory materials.
- Mass macro machining production.
- Selective heat treating of materials.
- This is used in surgery.
- Micro-drilling operation.
- Photography in medical science.
- Spectroscopic Science.
Advantage / Merits:
- Any material can be machined including non-metal.
- There is no direct contact between the tool and the work.
- There is no tool wear.
- Soft materials like rubber, plastic can be machined.
- Extremely small holes can be machined.
- No mechanical force on the work.
- Heat affected zone is very small.
- Heat treated and magnetic materials can be welded, without losing their properties.
Disadvantage / De-merits:
- The overall efficiency of the machining is very low.
- It is limited to thin sheets.
- It’s having a high cost.
- A very low rate of metal-removing.
- Life of the flash lamp is short.
- It is not possible to remove a large number of metals.
- The machined holes are not round and straight.
- Not able to drill too deep holes.
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