Laser Beam Machining-Working Process, Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application, PDF

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Are you looking for the Laser Beam Machining? So today we will study the Working Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application and PDF of Laser Beam Machining. Here you will get the articles of Mechanical Engineering in brief with some key points and you will get to know an enormous amount of knowledge from It. So If you find helpful this articles, please let us know in the comment box either if any correction required too, also let us know in the comment box.

Laser Beam Machining:

Laser beam machining is a non-conventional machining method in which the operation performed by the laser. The laser stand for Light stimulated emission of radiation. The process used thermal energy to remove material from a metallic surface.

Laser Beam Machining Working Principle:

The working principle of laser beam machining is,

laser beam machining

Laser Beam Machining

In LBM, Laser means:

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

In this process, the Laser Beam is called as monochromatic light, which is made to focus on the workpiece to be machined by a lens to give extremely high energy density to melt and vaporize any material.

The Laser Crystal (Ruby) is in the form of a cylinder as shown in above figure or Diagram with flat reflecting ends which are placed in a flash lamp coil of about 1000W.

The Flash is simulated with the high-intensity white light from Xenon.

The Crystal get excited and emits the laser beam which is focused on the workpiece a by using the lens.

The beam produced is extremely narrow and can be focused to a pinpoint area with a power density of 1000 kW/cm2. Which produces high heat and the portion of the metal is melted and vapourises.

Laser Beam Machining Application, Advantage, Disadvantage:


  1. This process is used for making very small holes.
  2. Complicated welding of non-conductive and refractory materials.
  3. Mass macro machining production.
  4. Selective heat treating of materials.
  5. This is used in surgery.
  6. Micro-drilling operation.
  7. Photography in medical science.
  8. Spectroscopic Science.

Advantage / Merits:

  1. Any material can be machined including non-metal.
  2. There is no direct contact between the tool and the work.
  3. There is no tool wear.
  4. Soft materials like rubber, plastic can be machined.
  5. Extremely small holes can be machined.
  6. No mechanical force on the work.
  7. Heat affected zone is very small.
  8. Heat treated and magnetic materials can be welded, without losing their properties.

Disadvantage / De-merits:

  1. The overall efficiency of the machining is very low.
  2. It is limited to thin sheets.
  3. It’s having a high cost.
  4. A very low rate of metal-removing.
  5. Life of the flash lamp is short.
  6. It is not possible to remove a large number of metals.
  7. The machined holes are not round and straight.
  8. Not able to drill too deep holes.

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About the Author

Amrit Kumar

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Amrit is a Co-founder of Learn Mechanical Portal (Previously owned ""). He completed his diploma in Mechanical Engineering from Acharya Polytechnic Bangalore and also completed his B-Tech from Delhi. Amrit is now preparing for Govt. exams. If you need help, you can ask him regarding any suggestions in the mechanical engineering field. He loves to meet new people.

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