Laser Beam Machining: Definition, Working Process, Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application [Notes with PDF]

In this article, I will give you a detailed overview of Laser Beam Machining.

Let’s start with the introduction,

  • The full form of Laser is Light Stimulated emission of Radiation.
  • The unwanted material is removed by Laser beam or Laser Light.
  • When the laser lights (temperature is max) focus on the workpiece it melts and evaporates the workpiece material.

Now moving to the definition,

What is Laser Beam Machining?

A laser beam machining is a non-conventional machining method in which the operation is performed by laser light. The laser light has maximum temperature strikes on the workpiece, due to high temp the workpiece gets melts. The process used thermal energy to remove material from a metallic surface.

Laser Beam Machining Working Principle:

Laser Beam Machining
Laser Beam Machining

The working principle of laser machining is,

In this process, the Laser Beam is called monochromatic light, which is made to focus on the workpiece to be machined by a lens to give extremely high energy density to melt and vaporize any material.

The Laser Crystal (Ruby) is in the form of a cylinder as shown in the above figure or Diagram with flat reflecting ends which are placed in a flash lamp coil of about 1000W.

The Flash is simulated with the high-intensity white light from Xenon. The Crystal gets excited and emits the laser beam which is focused on the workpiece by using the lens.

The beam produced is extremely narrow and can be focused to a pinpoint area with a power density of 1000 kW/cm2. Which produces high heat and the portion of the metal is melted and vapourises.

Laser Beam Machining Construction or Main Parts:

#1 Power Supply:

A high voltage is required for Laser. The power is supplied to the system for exiting the electron. When the power is supplied the electron gets in an excited state that means ready to work.

#2 Flash Lamps:

Flash lamps is used for providing white and coherent light for the very short duration.

#3 Capacitor:

In general we know the work of capacitor, It is used for storing and releasing the charge. Here it is used during the flashing process.

#4 Reflecting Mirror:

Reflecting Mirror is used here to reflect the light directly to the workpiece. It is of two types Internal and external.

#5 Lense:

Lense are provided here for vision purpose. It shows the image into bigger size so that it will be easy to perform operation on the given work piece mark.

#6 Workpiece:

Work piece is like the object in which the operation is to be carried out. Example if body needed any laser operation then we are the work piece for this machine, same like manufacturing the objects needs to be drill or hole the Laser machine carried out the operation.

Laser Beam Machining Application:

The following application of Laser beam machining is:

  • The laser beam machining process is used for making very small holes.
  • Mass macro machining production.
  • LBM is used in surgery.
  • Selective heat treating of materials.
  • Complicated welding of non-conductive and refractory materials.
  • Micro-drilling operation.
  • Photography in medical science.
  • Spectroscopic Science.

Laser Beam Machining Advantage:

The following advantages of laser beam machining are:

  • Any material can be machined including non-metal.
  • The production rate is high.
  • There is no direct contact between the tool and the work.
  • There is no tool wear.
  • No mechanical force on the work.
  • The heat-affected zone is very small.
  • Heat treated and magnetic materials can be welded, without losing their properties.
  • Soft materials like rubber, plastic can be machined.
  • Extremely small holes can be machined.

Laser Beam Machining Disadvantage:

The following disadvantages of laser machining are:

  • The overall efficiency of Laser machining is very low.
  • It is limited to thin sheets.
  • The life of the flash lamp is short.
  • It is not possible to remove a large number of metals.
  • The machined holes are not round and straight.
  • Not able to drill too deep holes.
  • It’s having a high cost.
  • A very low rate of metal-removing.

So this is all about Laser Machining, I hope you like my article. I also wrote articles on some other processes do check out those too.

And moreover do not forget to share the article on your favorite social platform.

More Resources for you

Resistance Welding
Submerged Arc Welding
Arc welding machine
Tungsten Inert gas welding
Plasma arc welding

References [External Links]:

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Anup Kumar Dey

A Mechanical Engineer with 19 years of working experience in various renowned MNCs.

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