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## Venturi Meter:

Venturi Meter is a device or component which is used for measuring the rate of flow of liquid through pipes.

The rate of Fluid = Discharge.

Venture Meter is first developed by G.B. Venturi in 1797.

It works on the basic principle of Bernoulli’s Equation.

**Bernoulli’s Equation: **In Simple, this is defined as the sum of Pressure energy, Kinetic energy per unit volume and Potential energy per unit volume equal in the same direction.

## Venturi Meter Definition:

Venturi Meter is a device in which pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy and It used for measuring the flow rate (Discharge) of the system.

## Venturi Meter Parts:

**It consists of 3 parts:**

**Converging cone or Diameter (the area is Decreasing)****Throat Diameter (the area is constant)****Diverging cone (the area is increasing)**

let’s consider a pipe in which there is venturi meter is fixed. In the pipe fluid is flowing so first it enters into a converging cone then Thorat and then Diverging Cone.

### Converging cone:

When water flowing through this cone the area is decreasing, therefore, the speed of flowing water increases and pressure decreases.

### Throat Diameter:

When water flowing through this cone the area remains constant therefore the speed of flowing water and pressure remains constant.

### Diverging cone:

When water flowing through this cone the area is increasing, therefore, the speed of flowing water decreases and pressure decreases.

## Venturi Meter Working Principle / Diagram:

Venturi Meter works on the basic principle of Bernoulli’s Equation.

## Venturi Meter Derivation / Formula:

The derivation has been solved on paper because their several rotations cannot be typed here.

In the figure, the water flowing in the pipe (flow in) comes with section 1 and flow out goes with section 3.

**The several rotations are:**

_{A1}= Inlet area in m^{2}.- D
_{1}= Diameter of Inlet. - D
_{2}= Diameter of the throat. - A2 = Throat area in m
^{2}. _{P1}= Pressure at the inlet in N/m^{2}._{P2}= Pressure at the throat in N/m^{2}._{V1}= Velocity at inlet in m/sec_{V2}= Velocity at throat in m/sec.- h = Pressure heads.
- C
_{d}= Coefficient of Discharge. This is unitless. - Q
_{act}= Actual discharge in m^{3}/sec. - Q
_{the}= Theoretical discharge in m^{3}/sec.

The other way to find **h (Pressure heads)** by using differential U–Tube Manometer:

The liquid in the manometer is heavier than the flowing fluid in the pipe.

- S
_{h }=Specific gravity of the heavier liquid. - x = Difference of the heavier liquid column in U-tube
- S
_{0}=The Specific gravity of flowing fluid. - S
_{l}=Specific gravity of the lighter liquid.

**h = x [ (S _{h} / S_{0}) – 1]**

The liquid in the manometer is lighter than the flowing fluid in the pipe.

**h = x [1- (S _{l} / S_{0}) ]**

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## Venturi Meter Application / Uses:

**The Venturi Meter application are:**

- Calculating the flow rate of fluid that is Discharge in the pipe.
- Plumbing.
- Carburetor.
- The flow of chemical in pipelines.
- This is widely used in large-diameter pipes such as found in the waste treatment process.
- Also used in the medicine department for the measure, the flow rate of blood in arteries.
- This also used where high-pressure recovery is required.

## Venturi Meter Advantages / Merits:

**The Venturi Meter advantages are:**

- Power loss is very less.
- This can be used where a small head is available.
- High reproducibility (the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment is repeated).
- Accuracy is high over wide flow ranges.
- This can also be used for a compressible and incompressible fluid.
- This device is easy to operate.
- The coefficient of discharge (C
_{d}) for the venturi meter is high. - This is widely used for high flow rate (Discharge).

## Venturi Meter Disadvantages / Demerits / Limitation:

**The Venturi Meter disadvantages are:**

- The installation cost of a venturi meter is high.
- There are little difficulties while maintenance.
- This device can not be used where the pipe has a small diameter of 76.2 mm.
- Non-linear.
- This system occupies more space as compared to the orifice meter.
- It has a limitation of lower Reynolds number of 150,000.
- It is expensive and a little bulky.

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## Comments 2

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