Different Types of Welding used in Industries (PDF)

Welding is a widely popular fabrication process where heat, pressure, or both are applied to fuse and join two or more parts together. The completed weld joint is known as a weldment. In industrial applications, welding is considered to be the most preferred permanent joining method. In this article, we will learn about various welding types that are widely used in industries.

There are a lot of welding items in industrial plants. The application of welding is so vast that special certification programs are launched by several institutes to train the engineers specifically. Most of the common materials like carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, etc are joined by welding. Welding joints provide a very good strength comparable to the parent metal and because of this welding is highly popular. Welding is extensively used for various applications. The application of welding is widely found in the following industries:

  • Construction industries
  • Manufacturing plants
  • Shipbuilding
  • Automotive Industries
  • Equipment like pressure vessels, and heat exchanger manufacturing.
  • Home improvement industry
  • Aerospace industry.
  • Maintenance and Repair industry.
  • Railroads
  • Piping and pipeline industries
  • Manufacturing bridges, buildings, etc
  • Fabrication industries

Types of Welding

The welding can be categorized based on various different parameters as listed below:

  • Welding Types Based on Welding Configuration
  • Welding Types Based on Penetration
  • Welding Types Based on Accessibility
  • Welding Types Based on Welding Mechanism
  • Welding Types Based on Welding Techniques and Application

Types of Welding Based on Weld Configuration

Based on the configuration, there are four types of welding joints as mentioned below:

  • Butt Welding
  • Fillet Welding
  • Slot Welding and
  • Plug Welding

Butt Welding: Butt welding is one of the simplest and most widely used types of welding joints. Two pieces of metal are placed end-to-end (on the same plane) in Butt welding and then joined. In butt welding, the workpieces are almost parallel and do not overlap.

Fillet Welding: Fillet welding is the welding process of two metal pieces when they are positioned perpendicular or at an angle to each other. Tee joint, Corner joint, Lap joint, etc are all examples of Fillet welding. Fillet welding is one of the most extensively used welding methods.

Types of Welds based on Welding Configuration
Fig. 1: Types of Welds based on Welding Configuration (PC: twi-global.com)

Slot Welding: In this type of welding, the joint is made by depositing a fillet weld around the periphery of a hole in one component to join it to the surface of the other component exposed through the hole.

Plug Welding: In plug welding, a circular/oval-shaped hole in one component of a workpiece is filled with the filler metal to fix it to the surface of an overlapping component exposed through the hole.

Types of Welding Based on Welding Penetration

Depending on the penetration of the weld metal there are two types of welding. They are:

  • Complete joint penetration welding (CJP welding) and
  • Partial joint penetration welding or PJP welding

The CJP welding is the welded joint where the weld metal fully penetrates the joint with complete root fusion. On the other hand, in PJP welding the fusion penetration is intentionally less than full penetration.

Types of Welding Based on Accessibility

Based on the accessibility to weld on the metal pieces, there are two types of welding as mentioned below (Refer to Fig. 2):

  • Single-side welding and
  • Double-side welding
Different Welding types
Fig. 2: Different Welding types

Welding Types Based on Welding Mechanism

Based on the Welding Mechanism, the welding process can be classified into the following three types:

  • Plastic Welding
  • Fusion Welding, and
  • Cold Welding

Plastic Welding: Also known as pressure welding, in the plastic welding process the metallic work-pieces are heated to a plastic state and then joined together by applying external pressure. As the joining of metals takes place in a plastic state, it is also known as the liquid-solid welding process. Forge welding, resistance welding, etc are examples of plastic welding.

Fusion Welding: In this type of welding, the weld material at the joint is heated to a molten state and allowed to solidify. As the welding is performed in a liquid state, this welding is also popular as a liquid state welding process. No pressure is applied during welding. Some examples of fusion welding are gas welding, arc welding, thermite welding, etc.

Cold Welding: As the name suggests, Cold welding is the welding of workpieces in a cold state. Cold welding joints are produced without heat application but the pressure is required to apply to result in inter-surface molecular fusion or diffusion of the parts. Cold welding is known as a solid-state welding process and is mainly used for welding nonferrous sheet metals like aluminum and their alloys. Some examples of cold welding are ultrasonic welding, friction welding, Explosive welding, etc.

Welding Types Based on Welding Techniques and Application

Depending on the welding techniques and application there are various types of welding methods used for industrial applications. The most common industrial welding processes are:

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Anup Kumar Dey

A Mechanical Engineer with 19 years of working experience in various renowned MNCs.

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