Thermodynamics System:

A thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space upon which attention is concentrated in the analysis of a problem.

Before going to move on the definition of Surrounding, Boundary, Universe first considers a system as shown in the figure:

Everything external to the system is called Surrounding.

The system is separated from the surrounding by the System Boundary. This may be either fixed or moving.

The system and surrounding together it comprises the Universe.

3 Types of a Thermodynamic System which are:

  1. Closed System
  2. Open System and
  3. Isolated System
Thermodynamics system

1. Closed system:

Mass is fixed. No mass can cross the boundary of the system. This is also called a Control Mass system.

Heat energy can be exchanged to its surrounding.

“A closed system is defined as in which the mass is fixed (No mass can cross the boundary of the system) and heat energy can be transfer to its surrounding.”

Example:

Piston cylinder arrangement without valves. other examples

Putting a lid on the saucepan makes the saucepan a closed system. By putting a lid on the saucepan, the matter can no longer transfer because the lid prevents the matter from entering the saucepan and leaving the saucepan-This example you will understand when you read open system examples. So now Open system,

2. Open system:

Mass is not fixed. Mass can cross the boundary of the system. This is also called a Control volume system.

Heat energy also can be exchanged to its surrounding.

“An open system is defined as in which the mass and heat energy can be transfer to its surrounding.”

Example: 

Boiling soup in an open saucepan on a stove, the energy and matter are being transferred to the surroundings through steam, this is an example of an open system. 

An air compressor, Turbine.

3. Isolated system:

Mass is fixed. No mass can cross the boundary of the system. This is also called a Control Mass system.

Heat energy also can not be exchanged to its surrounding.

“An isolated system is defined as in which the mass is fixed (No mass can cross the boundary of the system) and as well  heat energy can not be transferred to its surrounding.”

Example:

A thermos flask (But in reality this system does not exist because the hot water in this can not remains hot forever)

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About the Author

Amrit Kumar

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Amrit is a Co-founder of Learn Mechanical Portal (Previously owned "Engramritkumar.com"). He completed his diploma in Mechanical Engineering from Acharya Polytechnic Bangalore and also completed his B-Tech from Delhi.

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