Today we will study Gas Welding: Definition, Equipment, Flames, Working, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications in detail.
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Before going to Gas welding let me discuss what is welding?
So, welding is defined as a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence.
This is often done by melting the workpiece and adding a filler material from a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, but sometimes the pressure is used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld.
Melting a lower-melting point material between the workpiece to form a bond between them, without melting the workpiece.
Definition of Gas Welding:
Gas welding is a type of liquid state welding process, in which fuel gas burns to generate heat. This heat is used to melt interface surfaces of welding plates which are held together to form a joint.
In this welding process, mostly oxy-acetylene gas is used as working fuel gas. This process can be done with or without the help of filler material.
Equipment of Gas Welding:
These are the equipment which needed to perform gas welding:
- Oxygen cylinders
- Acetylene cylinders
- Pressure regulator
- Goggles and
Let me discuss each one of that equipment in detail.
Oxygen and acetylene are stored under pressure in a steel cylinder. They are seized by the amount of oxygen or acetylene that they hold.
Cylinders should always be secured and used in the upright position. When a cylinder is not being used the valve cap should always be in place.
These cylinders are made of steel and are usually painted green. They contain compressed oxygen at presses that can be as high as 2200 PSI.
All cylinders have valves and are fitted with a screw-on steel cap that protects the cylinder valve when the cylinder is not in use.
These cylinders contain acetylene under pressure are painted black made of steel and have cylinder valves.
The cylinders contain porous filler material, which is fitted with acetone that allows the acetylene to be safely be contained in the cylinder at 250 PSI.
Acetylene should never be used at a pressure that exceeds 15 PSI as it becomes highly unstable which depending upon the condition could cause it to decompose and explode.
Both oxygen and fuel gases are filled in the cylinder at high pressure. These gases cannot use at this high pressure for welding works, so a pressure regulator is used between the flow.
It supplies oxygen at a pressure of about 70 – 130 Kn/m2 and gas at 7 – 103 Kn/m2 to the welding torch.
The torch assembly consists of the handle Oxygen and fuel gas valves and the mixing chamber.
Welding tips or cutting attachments with the handles can be used, for welding, heating, and cutting operations.
Oxygen and fuel gas flow through tubes inside the handle which blend in the mixing chamber or tip. It is at the tip that the mixed gas is ignited.
Goggles and Gloves:
These two Goggles and Gloves are used for safety purposes. Goggles protect the eyes and Gloves protect the hand from radiation and flame of fire.
Types of Flames Used in Gas Welding:
Generally, there are three types of flames used in Gas Welding, and those are:
- Neutral Flame
- Oxidizing Flame
- Carburizing or Reducing flame
Welding is generally carried out using the neutral flame sitting which has equal quantities of oxygen and acetylene.
The oxidizing flame is obtained by just increasing the oxygen flow rate.
Carburizing or Reducing Flame:
The carburizing or reducing flame is achieved by increasing acetylene flow with oxygen flow.
Because steel melts at a temperature of 1500 degrees centigrade the mixture of Oxygen and acetylene is used as it is the only gas combination with enough heat to weld Steel.
However, other gases such as propane hydrogen and coal gas can be used for joining lower melting points of metals and for brazing and silver soldering.
Working Principle of Gas Welding with Diagram:
The above figure shows all the equipment is set carefully and the gas cylinder and oxygen cylinder are connected to the welding torch through pressure regulators.
A regulate pressure of gas and oxygen supplied to the torch where they properly mixed.
The flame is ignited by a striker. Take care the tip of a torch is pointing downward.
Now the flame is controlled through valves situated in the welding torch.
The flame is set at the natural flame or carburizing flame or oxidizing flame according to the welding condition.
Now, the welding torch moved along the line where the joint was to be created.
This will melt the interface part and join them permanently.
Types of Techniques Used in Gas welding:
There are three types of techniques used in gas welding:
- Leftward Technique
- Rightward Technique
- All positional rightward Technique
The leftward technique is used almost exclusively and is ideally suited for welding butt, fillet, and lap joints in sheet thickness up to approximately 5 mm.
The rightward technique finds an application on plate thickness above 5 mm for welding in the flat and horizontal-vertical position.
All Positional Rightward Technique:
This is a modification of the rightward technique and it is ideally suited for welding the steel plate and in particular, pipework where positional welding (vertical and overhead) has to be carried out.
Types of Gas Welding:
These are the types of gas weldings:
- Oxyfuel Gas
- Pressure gas welding
Advantages of Gas Welding:
Gas Welding has the following advantages:
- Less is versatile
- Adapted too many different jobs
- Equipment is relative to low cost
- Independent from the availability of external energy sources
Disadvantages of Gas Welding:
Here are some disadvantages of Gas Welding:
- Welders skill required in manipulating the torch, the flame, and the filler rod.
- The flux required for most materials compared to low carbon steel.
- Reactive or refractory metals are unsuited to gas welding.
- Slow metal joining rate.
Applications of Gas Welding:
Gas welding used for:
- For joining thin materials.
- Joining most ferrous and nonferrous materials.
- Used in automatic and aircraft industries and sheet metal fabrication.
So this is all about Gas Welding, I hope you like my article. I also wrote articles on some other welding processes do check out those too.
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What is Welding?
What are the types of Gas Welding?
1. Oxyfuel Gas
4. Pressure gas welding
What are the types of Flame?
1. Neutral Flame
2. Oxidizing Flame
3. Carburizing or Reducing flame