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Let’s have an overview of Impulse and Reaction Turbine first. So,
Let’s know the Impulse turbine in details:
Impulse turbine changes the velocity of the water jet.
The jet impinges on the turbine curved blade which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades.
Since the turbine is spinning, the force act through a distance (work) and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy.
Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water pressure (potential energy) is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine.
No pressure changes occur at the turbine blades, and the turbine doesn’t require housing for operation.
Newton’s second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbine.
Impulse turbines are most often used in a very high head application.
This turbine works at atmospheric pressure.
The Impulse turbines are- Turgo, Jornal, Banki, Girad and Pelton Turbine.
Reaction turbines are acted on by water which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure (or suction), there must be fully submerged in the water flow.
Newton’s third law describes the transfer of energy for the reaction turbine.
Most water turbines used a reaction turbine.
They are used in low and medium head application
This turbine works above the atmospheric pressure.
The Reaction turbines are- Thompson, Francis, Kaplan, Fourneyron and Propeller Turbine.
Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbine:
|SL. NO||IMPULSE TURBINE||REACTION TURBINE|
|1||All hydraulic energy is converted into kinetic energy by a nozzle.||Only some amount of the available energy is converted into kinetic energy.|
|2||Required less maintenance.||Here it’s required more maintenance.|
|3||The degree of reaction is zero.||The degree of reaction is between ‘0’ to ‘1’|
|4||It needs low discharge of water.||It needs medium and high discharge of water.|
|5||Water flow is a tangential direction to the turbine wheel.||Water flow is radial and axial direction to the turbine wheel.|
|6||Here is having more hydraulic efficiency.||It’s having relatively less efficiency.|
|7||Impulse turbine operates at high water heads.||It operates at medium and low heads.|
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Other Points are:
|8||Example of an impulse turbine is the Pelton wheel.||Example of a Reaction turbine is Francis, Kaplan turbine.|
|9||Flow regulation is done by means of a needle valve fitted into the nozzle.||Flow regulation is carried out by means of guide vane assembly.|
|10||The turbine is always installed above the tailrace and there is no draft tube used.||Reaction turbine is generally connected to the tailrace through a draft tube which is gradually expanding passage.|
|11||The turbine doesn’t run full and air has free access to the bucket.||Water completely fills at the passage between the blades and while flowing between the inlet and outlet sections does work on the blades.|
|12||Water is admitted only in the forms of jets. There may be one or more jets striking an equal number of buckets simultaneously.||Water is admitted over the entire circumference of the runner.|
Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbine PDF:
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