Die Casting: Definition, Process, Types, Defects and Remedies, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages [With PDF]

Amrit Kumar
Reading Time: 6 minutes

In this article, I'll show you everything you need to know about the Die Casting Process. At the beginning we'll start with the definition, then we dive into the steps of die-casting, Types, die casting defects with the solution. Further on we'll see the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of die casting as well.

What is Die Casting?

Die casting is a permanent mould casting where the molten metal fills the mould cavity due to the gravitational force or external pressure. The mould cavity is made up using two hardened steel dies which are shaped according to the desired product. Die casting generally made of no-ferrous material like zinc, Tin based alloy, aluminium, copper, etc. It works similar to the injection moulding.

Process of Die Casting:

The die casting process is undergoing five steps mentioned below:

Preparation and Clamping:

In this step of Die Casting, the preparation and clamping work of dies is done.

At first two halves of the dies is cleaned then it's lubricated, so that after casting it is easier to remove the casted part. Also, lubricant helps to control the temperature of the die.

In general, we lubricate the part after 2-3 cycle, depending on the specification of the casted part (i.e. size, material, weight, etc.).

After the lubrication process, we attached the die halves in the die casting machine and clamped it together rigidly, so that when the injection process started it can securely be enclosed together, otherwise we see some leakage and the final product will have defects.

Filling and Injection Process:

Molten metal from the furnace poured into a chamber from where it is injected to the die cavity. This procedure can be different for different types of casting process (i.e. hot chamber or cold chamber).

The injection pressure is in between 10 and 175 MPa (1,500 and 25,400 psi), and the same pressure is maintained until the casting solidifies.

The amount of molten metal which is injected to the die cavity is called Shot.

The injection time of the molten metal is very short generally less than 0.1 second. If it's more than that we can see early solidification of the molten metal, which brings the defect in the product. Even sometime the product will be wasted.

Cooling Process:

When the injection process is completed and the die cavity is filled, we have to keep the system untouched, so that sufficient cooling and solidifying happens. The cooling time and solidifying time depending on the property of the material (i.e. size, material, thickness and so on).

Ejection and Shakeout Process:

After keeping the system for sufficient time for cooling and solidification, now we have to eject the casted product.

There is an ejection mechanism (ejector pin) which help us to eject the product easily.

So after ejection, we will go for the trimming process where, excess materials (i.e. gates, runners, sprues, and flash) from the casted part is removed.

Defect Inspection:

Now we have the casted product without any excess material. The casted part is now undergoing defect inspection. Its include x-ray, surface crack detection etc. The very common defect we can see after die casting is stagnation and cold heading.

After the inspection process, the casted part goes for post-processing like grinding, polishing, honing, etc. if needed.

Types of Die Casting

Die casting is classified into following types:

  • Gravity Die Casting
  • Pressure Die Casting.

Gravity Die Casting:

Here the molten metal is being poured into the mould cavity due to the ‘gravitational force’.

A liquid (slurry coating) is used so that the molten metal not to adhere around the metallic mould. The slurry coating is poured before pouring the molten metal.

In this process, half of the pouring basin, sprue, runner and cavity are in one mould box and another half is made on the other moulding box. In case of the core, half of the core is placed in one moulding box and another half is placed to other moulding boxes.

Gravity Die Casting Step 1
Gravity Die Casting Step 1, Learn Mechanical
Gravity Die Casting Step 2
Gravity Die Casting Step 2, Learn Mechanical
Gravity Die Casting Step 3
Gravity Die Casting Step 3, Learn Mechanical

Pressure Die Casting:

Here the molten metal is injected by the application of external pressure. Permanent metallic moulds are used in this casting process.

High Pressure Die Casting image
High Pressure Die casting, Learn Mechanical

Again Pressure Die Casting can be classified into following types:

Cold Chamber Pressure Die Casting:

The molten metal poured into a ‘hot chamber’ from the ladle. After that, the ram pushes or injects the molten metal and then the cavity inside the movable die half and fixed die half is filled.

After solidification, the casting component is removed from the dies. Here the metal is melted away from the chamber. The molten metal brings by the ladle and then poured into the hot chamber. Here the furnace is not an integral part of the cold chamber pressure die casting machine.

Hot Chamber Pressure Die Casting:

Here the furnace is an integral part of the hot chamber pressure die casting machine. The molten metal is pushed by the hydraulic shot cylinder and then the pressure increases.

Due to the increase of pressure the molten metal goes into the cavity between the two die halves. After solidification, the part is removed by separating the dies.

Die Casting Defects with solutions:

DefectsCausesRemedies or Solution
Gas PorosityThe temperature of pouring metal is low. Slow pouring rate can cause gas porosity.Increase the metal pouring temperature. Fast pouring rate of molten metal can eliminate gas porosity.
Shrinkage PorosityThe volume of molten metal should be reduced during solidification. Improper design of the runner and gating system can produce shrinkage porosity.Extra tolerance is required during the design of the die.  Use of simple geometry in casting can reduce shrinkage porosity.
SinkInsufficient metal can be a major reason for sinks. The seal time of gate is slow. Speed of injection should be low.Extra molten metal is required to avoid the sink. The seal time of gate should be increased. Increase the injection speed so that viscosity can decrease.  
BlisterHigh rate of injection may produce blister.   Removal of parts which are at high temperature during ejection from the die.  High heat concentration at the die surface also produce blister.Low rate of injection. The vacuum should be used during filling the die cavity.  Temperature sensors are required to place near the die.  Lower heat concentration at the die surface can eliminate blister.
SegregationThe non-equilibrium composition can produce segregation.Segregation can be removed or eliminated by the heat treatment process.
InclusionsWhen sand and dirt is not properly cleaned from moulds, inclusions are produced.  Improper gating system produces inclusions.Regular cleaning of die is mandatory.  Improvement of the gating system helps to avoid inclusions.
DrossThe high rate of reaction can forms dross. Thermite reaction causes the dross.  The high temperature of molten metal may also produce dross.Lower the reaction time which reduces the formation of dross.  Avoid the thermite reaction and oxidation to eliminate dross.  The low temperature of the molten metal can avoid dross.
CracksMore stress concentration at a specific area may cause a crack in that particular region.  High thermal concentration may also lead to crack formation.  The high rate of injection forces results crack on the casting.  Damaged die cavities can form a crack. Improper draft in die section can produce cracks.  Faulty die design can produce crack. Shrinkage of casting in die leads cracks on casting.Proper design of casting can eliminate crack.  Use chillers in casting areas.  Give exact time for cooling to the molten metal for solidification. Reduce the temperature of molten metal.  Avoiding sharp corners, providing fillets and round-off the corners can eliminate crack formation. Add saw or coal dust to reduce die strength.
Cold ShutLow fluidity of mould helps to arise cold shut problem.  Thin section of casting leads cold shut.  Low pouring temperature of molten metal can produce cold shut.  Improper gating system produces cold shut.Use different composition of metal to improve the fluidity.  Avoid thin section in the casting. Increase the pouring temperature helps to eliminate cold shut. Use proper gating system to avoid cold shut.
Hot TearsThe thermal contraction in casting can produce hot tears.  Improper placement of gates may also produce hot tears.  High pouring temperature causes hot tears.  Faulty solidification procedure or method forms hot tears.  Thin sections play a major role in the formation of hot tears.To avoid hot tears, provide a fillet radius at junctions.  Uniform thickness throughout the section of the casting can eliminate hot tears.  The gates should be accurately placed near the die. Use exact molten metal pouring temperature helps to avoid hot tears.  Use standard solidification procedure or method to eliminate hot tears.  Use the minimum permissible amount of thickness which depends upon the casting process.

Applications of Die Casting:

Die casting is used to make these products:

  • Carburettors
  • Valve bodies
  • Transmission housings
  • Aerospace
  • Hand tools, Power tools etc.

Advantages of Die Casting:

Die casting has several advantages some of them are listed below:

  • Die casting is an economical process as we can use the die for making sevaral product.
  • The surface finish we are getting from the casted product is smooth (1—2.5 μm (40—100 μin.) RMS).
  • As the surface finish of the casted product is smooth, we can eliminate the post-processing machining.
  • Casted products have greater dimensional accuracy.
  • Tensile strength of casting is high. It reaches up to 465 MPA.
  • Production rate is faster.

Disadvantages of Die Casting:

Disadvantages of Die Casting process listed below:

  • The initial cost of the machine is high, and also cost of the die is quite high.
  • Thickness of the material should be less than 13mm, however now a days we are eliminating this restriction.
  • We need to manufacture in bulk to counter the high cost as of other processes.

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  • Die Casting Images are made by Saubhik Roy, Design team LM.
  • Feature image is designed by the Author.


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